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## Math

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## Dear Parents,

We want to make sure that you have an understanding of the mathematics your child will be learning this year. Below you will find the standards we will be learning in Unit One. Each standard is in bold print and underlined and below it is an explanation with student examples. Your child is not learning math the way we did when we were in school, so hopefully this will assist you when you help your child at home. Please let your teacher know if you have any questions.

## MGSEK. CC.1 Count to 100 by ones and by tens.

This standard calls for students to rote count by starting at one and count to 100. When students count by tens, they are only expected to master counting on the decade (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 …).

MGSEK.CC.2 Count forward beginning from a given number within the known sequence (instead of having to begin at 1).

## This standard includes numbers 0 to 100. This asks for students to begin a rote forward counting sequence from a number other than 1. Thus, given the number 4, the student would count, “4, 5, 6 …”

MGSEK.CC.3 Write numbers from 0 to 20. Represent a number of objects with a written numeral 0-20 (with 0 representing a count of no objects).

## This standard addresses the writing of numbers and using the written numerals (0-20) to describe the amount of a set of objects. Due to varied development of fine motor and visual development, a reversal of numerals is anticipated for a majority of the students. While reversals should be pointed out to students, the emphasis is on the use of numerals to represent quantities rather than the correct handwriting formation of the actual numeral itself.

## In addition, the standard asks for students to represent a set of objects with a written numeral. The number of objects being recorded should not be greater than 20. Students can record the quantity of a set by selecting a number card/tile (numeral recognition) or writing the numeral. Students can also create a set of objects based on the numeral presented.

## MGSEK.CC.4 Understand the relationship between numbers and quantities; connect counting to cardinality.

This standard asks students to count a set of objects and see sets and numerals in relationship to one another, rather than as isolated numbers or sets.

## This standard should first be addressed using numbers 1-5 with teachers building to the numbers 1-10 later in the year. The expectation is that students are comfortable with these skills with the numbers 1-10 by the end of Kindergarten.

## a. When counting objects, say the number names in the standard order, pairing each object with one and only one number name and each number name with one and only one object.

This standard reflects the ideas that students implement correct counting procedures by pointing to one object at a time (one-to-one correspondence) using one counting word for every object (one-to-one tagging/synchrony), while keeping track of objects that have and have not been counted. This is the foundation of counting.

b. Understand that the last number name said tells the number of objects counted. The number of objects is the same regardless of their arrangement or the order in which they were counted.

This standard calls for students to answer the question “How many are there?” by counting objects in a set and understanding that the last number stated when counting a set (…8, 9, 10) represents the total amount of objects: “There are 10 bears in this pile” (cardinality). It also requires students to understand that the same set counted three different times will end up being the same amount each time. Thus, a purpose of keeping track of objects is developed. Therefore, a student who moves each object as it is counted recognizes that there is a need to keep track in order to figure out the amount of objects present. While it appears that this standard calls for students to have conservation of number, (regardless of the arrangement of objects, the quantity remains the same), conservation of number is a developmental milestone of which some Kindergarten children will not have mastered. The goal of this objective is for students to be able to count a set of objects; regardless of the formation those objects are placed.

c. Understand that each successive number name refers to a quantity that is one larger.

This standard represents the concept of “one more” while counting a set of objects. Students are to make the connection that if a set of objects was increased by one more object then the number name for that set is to be increased by one as well. Students are asked to understand this concept with and without objects. For example, after counting a set of 8 objects, students should be able to answer the question, “How many would there be if we added one more object?”; and answer a similar question when not using objects, by asking hypothetically, “What if we have 5 cubes and added one more. How many cubes would there be then?” This concept should be first taught with numbers 1-5 before building to numbers 1-10. Students are expected to be comfortable with this skill with numbers to 10 by the end of Kindergarten.

## MGSEKK.MD.3 Classify objects into given categories; count the numbers of objects in each category and sort the categories by count. (Limit category counts to be less than or equal to 10.)

## This standard asks students to identify similarities and differences between objects (e.g., size, color, shape) and use the identified attributes to sort a collection of objects. Once the objects are sorted, the student counts the amount in each set. Once each set is counted, then the student is asked to sort (or group) each of the sets by the amount in each set.

## For example, when given a collection of buttons, the student separates the buttons into different piles based on color (all the blue buttons are in one pile, all the orange buttons are in a different pile, etc.). Then the student counts the number of buttons in each pile: blue (5), green (4), orange (3), purple (4). Finally, the student organizes the groups by the quantity in each group (Orange buttons (3), Green buttons next (4), Purple buttons with the green buttons because purple also had (4), Blue buttons last (5).